以后地位:注释

高速路上的收费电力?中国试铺太阳能公路

作者:  泉源: 公布工夫:2018-06-18

要害词: 公路, 电池, 太阳能, ┊阅读:次┊

JINAN, China — On a smoggy afternoon, huge log carriers and oil tankers thundered down a highway and hurtled around a curve at the bottom of a hill. Only a single, unreinforced guardrail stood between the traffic and a ravine. 中国济南——一个雾霾天的下战书,运输木料的大货车和油罐车沿高速公路隆隆行驶,从一处山脚下的弯道吼叫而过。车流和一旁的山沟之间,只隔着一道没有加固的护栏。 The route could make for tough driving under any conditions. But experts are watching it for one feature in particular: The highway curve is paved with solar panels. 在任何气候状况下这段路都欠好开。但专家们正在监测的是路面的一个详细部位:高速公路的弯道上铺设了太阳能电池板。 “If it can pass this test, it can fit all conditions,” said Li Wu, the chairman of Shandong Pavenergy, the company that made the plastic-covered solar panels that carpet the road. If his product fares well, it could have a major impact on the renewable energy sector, and on the driving experience, too. “假如能经过这个路段的测试,就能顺应种种条件,”山东光实动力无限公司董事长李武说,铺在路面上的那些掩盖塑料表层的太阳能板,便是这家公司消费的。假如他的产物运转精良,将对可再生动力范畴发生严重影响,也会极大地影响驾驶体验。 The experiment is the latest sign of China’s desire to innovate in, and dominate, the increasingly lucrative and strategically important market for renewable energy. The country already produces three-quarters of the solar panels sold globally, and its wind-turbine manufacturing industry is also among the world’s largest. 可再生动力市场越来越有利可图,在战略上也日益紧张,中国盼望该范畴的创新和主导位置,高速公路上的实验便是这种盼望的又一体现。中国曾经消费了环球贩卖的太阳能电池板的四分之三,其风力发电机制造业也是天下最大的。 The potential appeal of solar roads — modified solar panels that are installed in place of asphalt — is clear. Generating electricity from highways and streets, rather than in fields and deserts packed with solar panels, could conserve a lot of land. Those advantages are particularly important in a place like China, a heavily populated country where demand for energy has risen rapidly. 这种用改装太阳能电池板代替沥青铺在路面的太阳能公路,潜伏吸引力是不言而喻的。在高速公路和街道上发电,而不是铺满太阳能电池板的旷野和戈壁,可以浪费少量地皮。在中国这团体口浩繁、动力需求敏捷增长的国度,这些劣势尤为紧张。 Because roads run through and around cities, the electricity could be used practically next door to where it is generated. That means virtually no power would be lost in transmission, as can happen with projects in outlying locations. And the land is essentially free, because roads are needed anyway. Roads must be resurfaced every few years at great cost, so the installation of durable solar panels could reduce the price of maintenance. 由于都会外部和周边都有路,路上发的电可以就近运用。也便是说简直不会有传输消耗,不像那些地处偏僻的太阳能发电项目。并且用地根本收费,由于公路横竖总是需求的。公路每隔几年必需重铺路面,破费不菲,装置耐用的太阳能电池板大概还能低落公路维护本钱。 Solar roads could also change the driving experience. Electric heating strips can melt snow that falls on them. Light-emitting diodes embedded in the surface can provide illuminated signage to direct drivers to exits and alert them to construction and other traffic hazards. 太阳能公路也能够改动驾驶体验。电热条可以消融落在路面的雪。嵌在电池板外表的发光二极管可以表现发光标识,指点驾驶员驶下出口,提示他们留意路途施工和其他交通风险。 Now, such roads are finally becoming viable. Prices have fallen drastically in recent years — thanks in large part to soaring Chinese production, a solar panel costs a tenth of what it did a decade ago. Road builders in China even want to design solar roads that can wirelessly recharge electric cars running on them, emulating a recent American experiment. 如今这种公路终于实在可行了。比年来太阳能电池板的价钱急剧下跌——次要归功于中国电池板的产量飙升,一块电池板的价格仅为十年前的非常之一。中国的筑路企业乃至盼望赶超美国近来停止的一项实行,设计出一种太阳能公路,能给路下行驶的电动汽车无线充电。 China’s leaders in solar road development are Pavenergy and Qilu Transportation. The two companies are working together here in Jinan, in Shandong Province, with Pavenergy making panels for Qilu, a large, state-owned highway construction and management company that operates the highway. 光实动力和齐鲁交通开展团体是中国太阳能公路开展的抢先者。两家公司正在山东济南停止合作,光实动力为齐鲁交通这家大型国有高速公路建立及办理公司消费太阳能电池板。 The surface of these panels, made of a complex polymer that resembles plastic, has slightly more friction than a conventional road surface, according to Zhang Hongchao, an engineering professor at Tongji University in Shanghai. Professor Zhang, who helped develop Pavenergy’s road surface, said that the friction could be adjusted as needed during the manufacturing process to ensure a level of tire grip equal to that of asphalt. 上海同济大学的交通运输工程学传授张宏超表现,太阳能电池板由相似塑料的庞大聚合物制成,外表摩擦力比传统路面略高。到场了光实动力电池板路面开辟的张宏超说,制造进程中可以按需求调解外表摩擦力,确保这种路面的轮胎抓地力程度与沥青路面相反。 The location of the solar road here, on a long curve at the bottom of a hill, was not Pavenergy’s first choice. The site was chosen because of its proximity to an electricity substation, ensuring that it would be connected to the grid. China is adding solar and wind energy sites so fast across the country that power generation projects farther from substations sometimes face delays of years in getting connected. 停止实验的这条太阳能公路位于山脚下的一处长弯道,这并非光实公司的首选所在。选址于此是由于这里接近一个变电站,确保了发电可以中计。中国正在天下各地新建太阳能和风能发电站,速率太快,以致一些阔别变电站的发电项目偶然需求推延数年才干中计。 The main Western rival to Pavenergy and Qilu is Colas, a French road-building giant that has developed 25 experimental solar roads and parking lots, mostly in France but also in Canada, Japan and the United States. The biggest of Colas’s solar sites, a country road in Normandy that opened a year and a half ago, has only half the surface area of the new solar highway in Jinan. Colas has been leery of putting solar panels on high-speed roads like the Chinese highway because of safety concerns; Professor Zhang said the panels were completely safe. 光实动力和齐鲁交通次要的东方竞争敌手是科拉(Colas),这家法国公路建立巨擘曾经开辟了25处实行性的太阳能公路及停车场,次要在法国,在加拿大、日本和美国也有。科拉最大的太阳能项目是一年半前在诺曼底投入运用的一条墟落公路,外表积只要济南新建太阳能公路的一半。出于平安顾忌,科拉不断不肯将太阳能电池板装在与中国这条公路相似的高速路上;张宏超说这些电池板十分平安。 Still, a litany of outstanding challenges means the wide deployment of solar roads is a long way off. 不外,连续串的困难标明太阳能公路间隔大范畴铺设还很悠远。 For one, they are less efficient than rooftop solar panels at converting the sun’s light into electricity. They lie flat, and are intermittently covered by vehicles, so solar panels on a road produce only around half the power that rooftop ones tilted toward the sun do. 起首,太阳能公路将阳光转换为电力的服从低于屋顶太阳能电池板。公路电池板是程度安排的,并且间歇性地被车辆遮挡,而屋顶电池板向太阳倾斜,因而前者消费的电能只要后者的约莫一半。 Solar roads are also more expensive than asphalt. It costs about $120 a square meter, or about $11 a square foot, to resurface and repair an asphalt road each decade. By comparison, Pavenergy and Colas hope to be able to bring the cost of a solar road to $310 to $460 a square meter with mass production. 太阳能公路也比沥青路贵。每十年重新铺设和修复沥青路面,每平方米约莫要花120美元。相比之下,光实动力和科拉希冀在大范围消费时能把太阳能公路的本钱拉低到每平方米310到460美元。 Panels on a highway would likely need to be replaced less often than asphalt, Professor Zhang said. And a solar road can produce about $15 a year worth of electricity from each square meter of solar panels. So it could roughly pay for itself, compared with asphalt, over about 15 years. 张宏超说,高速公路上的电池板的改换,能够不像沥青路面那么频仍。路上的电池板每平方米每年还能消费代价约15美元的电力。因而与沥青相比,电池板用上约莫15年就可以抵销本钱。 Less clear is whether the panels would be able to take the pounding of millions of tires each year for more than a decade, or whether they might be stolen. 但这些电池板可否接受延续十几年、每年几百万次的车轮碾压,或许能否会被偷走,就不那么好说了。 Several square feet of solar panels disappeared less than a week after they were installed here in late December, raising worries of theft or even industrial espionage. 济南这条公路上的电池板在客岁12月下旬装置完后不到一周,就不见了几个平方英尺,人们担忧这是小偷乃至财产特务干的。 Local police officers, facing criticism for not providing better security, said that the panels must have been crushed into tiny pieces and scattered by heavy trucks. Pavenergy declined to comment. 面临治安不力的责备,外地警方表现,电池板应该是被重型卡车压成碎粒,碾得四散了。光实动力对此未予置评。 In the United States, installing solar roads is more complicated. 在美国,铺设太阳能公路便是一个更顺手的题目了。 With the exception of some bridges and sections of interstate highways, American roads tend to be built with a lot of asphalt, but with less concrete underneath than roads elsewhere, said Kara M. Kockelman, a transportation engineering professor at the University of Texas. 德克萨斯州大学交通工程传授卡拉·M·科克曼(Kara M. Kockelman)说,除了局部桥梁和州际高速公路的某些路段外,美国公路每每用少量沥青铺就,但路面下的混凝土比其他中央的公路用得少。

The problem with asphalt is that it compresses slightly under the weight of trucks. The blue silicon of solar cells, the panels’ electricity-generating component, can withstand being mashed by many tons of weight. But the nearly paper-thin cells snap when bent, like a thin sheet of sugar. (This is not as much of an issue in China, where highways are built with very thick concrete bases.) 沥青的题目是在卡车的重压下会细微变形。太阳能电池的蓝色硅晶片,也便是电池板的发电部件,可以接受数吨的重压。但一遇弯折,纸普通薄的硅晶片就会像薄薄的糖片一样折断。(在中国,高速公路铺有很厚的混凝土路基,这就不是太大的题目。) Still, executives here are hopeful. They say that the technology is ready and that they are not concerned even by the complications of American highway construction. 不外这里的企业高管们是满怀盼望的。他们说技能已然齐备,即便美国高速公路建立的状况庞大,他们也并不担忧。 “If conditions permit,” Xu Chunfu, Qilu’s chairman, said, “I would like to build a solar road in the United States.” “假如条件容许,”齐鲁交通开展团体的董事长徐春福说,“我还想到美国建一条光伏路。”

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