作者:  泉源: 公布工夫:2018-04-24

要害词: 我们, 他们, 研讨, 冤家, 神经, ┊阅读:次┊

A friend will help you move, goes an old saying, while a good friend will help you move a body. And why not? Moral qualms aside, that good friend would most likely agree the victim was an intolerable jerk who had it coming and, jeez, you shouldn’t have done this but where do you keep the shovel? 有句老话说,冤家愿帮你搬迁,而好冤家愿帮你搬遗体。怎样会不肯呢?撇去品德方面的顾忌不说,这位好冤家也很有能够以为这个受益者是个令人难以容忍的忘八,咎由自取,那么,天呐,你不应这么做的,不外你把铁铲放哪了? New research suggests the roots of friendship extend even deeper than previously suspected. Scientists have found that the brains of close friends respond in remarkably similar ways as they view a series of short videos: the same ebbs and swells of attention and distraction, the same peaking of reward processing here, boredom alerts there. 新的研讨标明,情谊的基本比我们猜测的还要深。迷信家们发明,密切的冤家在寓目一系列短片刻,他们的大脑会以十分类似的方法做出反响:留意力的会合与疏散有着相反的升降,时而呈现相反的嘉奖反响顶峰,时而又有相反的厌倦警示。 The neural response patterns evoked by the videos — on subjects as diverse as the dangers of college football, the behavior of water in outer space, and Liam Neeson trying his hand at improv comedy — proved so congruent among friends, compared with patterns seen among people who were not friends, that the researchers could predict the strength of two people’s social bond based on their brain scans alone. 视频的内容多种多样,有大学足球的风险、外太空里水的特性、连姆·尼森(Liam Neeson)实验即兴悲剧扮演。与不是冤家的人相比,视频在冤家之间引发的神经反响形式是云云的分歧,以致于研讨职员乃至可以单凭两团体的大脑扫描揣测出他们社会干系的亲疏。 “I was struck by the exceptional magnitude of similarity among friends,” said Carolyn Parkinson, a cognitive scientist at the University of California, Los Angeles. The results “were more persuasive than I would have thought.” Parkinson and her colleagues, Thalia Wheatley and Adam M. Kleinbaum of Dartmouth College, reported their results in Nature Communications. “冤家之间这种类似水平让我震惊,”加州大学洛杉矶分校(University of California, Los Angeles)的认知学家卡洛琳·帕金森(Carolyn Parkinson)说。后果“比我想象的更有压服力”。帕金森和来自达特茅斯学院(Dartmouth College)的同事塔利娅·惠特利(Thalia Wheatley)、亚当·M·克莱伯恩(Adam M. Kleinbaum)在《天然通讯》(Nature Communications)上陈诉了他们的研讨后果。 “I think it’s an incredibly ingenious paper,” said Nicholas Christakis, author of “Connected: The Power of Our Social Networks and How They Shape Our World” and a biosociologist at Yale University. “It suggests that friends resemble each other not just superficially, but in the very structures of their brains.” “我以为这是一篇十分有首创性的论文,”耶鲁大先生物社会学家、《互联——社会网络的力气以及它怎样改动了我们的天下》(Connected: The Power of Our Social Networks and How They Shape Our World)一书的作者古乐朋(Nicholas Christakis)说。“这标明,冤家之间的相互类似不但在外表,还存在于他们的大脑构造中。” The findings offer tantalizing evidence for the vague sense we have that friendship is more than shared interests or checking off the right boxes on a Facebook profile. It’s about something we call good chemistry. 我们可以隐隐觉得到,情谊不但是拥有配合的兴味或是在Facebook团体材料中勾选过几多相应的选项。他们的观察后果给出了我们等待的证明。这与我们所说的“化学反响”有关。 “Our results suggest that friends might be similar in how they pay attention to and process the world around them,” Parkinson said. “That shared processing could make people click more easily and have the sort of seamless social interaction that can feel so rewarding.” “我们的研讨后果标明,冤家在怎样存眷和处置四周天下的方面能够是类似的,”帕金森说。“这种配合的处置方法会让人更容易成为冤家,拥有令人感触满意的、相互符合的社会来往。” Kevin N. Ochsner, a cognitive neuroscientist at Columbia University who studies social networks, said the new report is “cool,” “provocative” and “raises more questions than it answers.” It could well be picking up traces of “an ineffable shared reality” between friends. 哥伦比亚大学(Columbia University)研讨交际网络的认知神经学家凯文·N·奥克斯纳(Kevin N. Ochsner)称,这份新的研讨“很酷”、“令人冲动”,且“提出的题目多于答复”。这项研讨很能够发明了冤家之间“无法言喻的共有理想”的踪迹。 Ochsner offered his own story as evidence of the primacy of chemistry over mere biography. “My wife-to-be and I were both neuroscientists in the field, we were on dating websites, but we were never matched up,” he said. 奥克斯纳说出了本人的故事,以证明化学反响胜于单单一份团体列传。“我和未婚妻都是这个范畴的神经迷信家,我们都在用约会网站,但从未被婚配在一同,”他说。 “Then we happened to meet as colleagues and in two minutes we knew we had the kind of chemistry that breeds a relationship.” “然后我们偶尔以同事身份相遇,不出两分钟我们就晓得,我们有种能培育出一段情感的默契。” Parkinson — who is 31, wears large horn-rimmed glasses and has the wholesome look of a young Sally Field — described herself as introverted but said, “I’ve been fortunate with my friends.” 31岁的帕金森戴着大大的角质框架眼镜,有种莎莉·菲尔德(Sally Field)年老时的暮气。她描述本人性情外向,但也说“很侥幸能拥有我的冤家”。 The new study is part of a surge of scientific interest in the nature, structure and evolution of friendship. Behind the enthusiasm is a virtual Kilimanjaro of demographic evidence that friendlessness can be poisonous, exacting a physical and emotional toll comparable to that of more familiar risk factors like obesity, high blood pressure, unemployment, lack of exercise, smoking cigarettes. 迩来迷信对情谊的性子、构造和演化进程的兴味激增,这次研讨就属其一。在这种热情面前,少量生齿统计学数据证明缺乏情谊能够是无害的,形成的身材和情绪损伤堪比瘦削、高血压、赋闲、缺乏锤炼、吸烟等人们更为熟知的危害要素。 Scientists want to know what, exactly, makes friendship so healthy and social isolation so harmful, and they’re gathering provocative, if not yet definitive, clues. 迷信家们想要晓得,究竟是什么让情谊云云无益安康,而社会伶仃又云云无害,而他们正在搜集的固然并非决议性线索,但也令人高兴。 Christakis and his co-workers recently demonstrated that people with strong social ties had comparatively low concentrations of fibrinogen, a protein associated with the kind of chronic inflammation thought to be the source of many diseases. Why sociability might help block inflammation remains unclear. 古乐朋和同事不久前证明,社会联络弱小的人有着绝对较低的纤维卵白原浓度,这是一种与慢性炎症有关的卵白质,通常被视为很多疾病泉源。为什么交际才能能制止炎症现在尚不清晰。 Parkinson and her co-workers previously had shown that people are keenly and automatically aware of how all the players in their social sphere fit together, and the scientists wanted to know why some players in a given network are close friends and others mere nodding acquaintances. 帕金森和她的同事此前已经证明,人们对本人交际范畴的一切到场者怎样相互共同有着敏锐而盲目的认识,而迷信家们想晓得,为什么在一个既定的交际网络中,一些人能成为密切挚友,而另一些人只是摇头之交。 Inspired by the research of Uri Hasson of Princeton, they decided to explore subjects’ neural reactions to everyday, naturalistic stimuli — which these days means watching videos. 受普林斯顿大学尤里·哈森(Uri Hasson)的研讨启示,迷信家们决议研讨实行工具在一样平常天然安慰下的神经反响——如今这意味着寓目视频。 The researchers started with a defined social network: an entire class of 279 graduate students at an unnamed university widely known among neuroscientists to have been Dartmouth’s school of business. 研讨职员从一个既定交际网络动手:一所未泄漏校名的大学内的某一届研讨生,共279人。神经学家广泛晓得是达特茅斯的商学院。 The students, who all knew one another and in many cases lived in dorms together, were asked to fill out questionnaires. Which of their fellow students did they socialize with — share meals and go to a movie with, invite into their homes? From that survey the researchers mapped out a social network of varying degrees of connectivity: friends, friends of friends, third-degree friends, friends of Kevin Bacon. 这些先生都互相看法,有些还同住一个宿舍,他们被要求填写了观察问卷。他们与哪些同窗来往——一同用饭、看影戏,或是约请回家?依据观察,研讨职员绘制出了衔接水平差别的交际网络:冤家、冤家的冤家、三度冤家,凯文·贝肯(Kevin Bacon)的冤家。 The students were then asked to participate in a brain scanning study and 42 agreed. As an fMRI device tracked blood flow in their brains, the students watched a series of video clips of varying lengths, an experience that Parkinson likened to channel surfing with somebody else in control of the remote. 随后,先生被约请到场脑部扫描研讨,此中42人赞同参与。在先生寓目一系列有长有短的视频片断的同时,一台fMRI设置装备摆设会追踪他们大脑的血液活动状况。帕金森将这一体验比作与掌握遥控器的另一团体一同搜刮电视频道。 Analyzing the scans of the students, Parkinson and her colleagues found strong concordance between blood flow patterns — a measure of neural activity — and the degree of friendship among the various participants, even after controlling for other factors that might explain similarities in neural responses, like ethnicity, religion or family income. 经过对先生扫描的剖析,帕金森和同事们发明,血液活动的形式——神经运动的一种权衡方法——与差别到场者之间的情谊水平存在高度分歧性,乃至在控制了种族、宗教或家庭支出等其他可以表明神经反响类似性的要素后仍然云云。

The researchers identified particularly revealing regions of pattern concordance among friends, notably in the nucleus accumbens, in the lower forebrain, which is key to reward processing, and in the superior parietal lobule, located toward the top and the back of the brain — roughly at the position of a man bun — where the brain decides how to allocate attention to the external environment. 研讨职员找出了那些特殊能表现冤家间形式分歧性的地区,尤其是下前脑担任嘉奖处置的伏隔核,以及位于大脑顶部和后部的顶上小叶——大约就在男士丸子头的地位——这个地区决议大脑怎样分派对内部情况的留意力。 Using the results, the researchers were able to train a computer algorithm to predict, at a rate well above chance, the social distance between two people based on the relative similarity of their neural response patterns. 应用这些后果,研讨职员可以经过盘算机算法依据两团体的神经反响形式的绝对类似度来预测他们的交际干系密切水平。 Parkinson emphasized that the study was a “first pass, a proof of concept,” and that she and her colleagues still don’t know what the neural response patterns mean: what attitudes, opinions, impulses or mental thumb-twiddling the scans may be detecting. 帕金森夸大,这项研讨是“第一关,它证明白一个观点”,她和同事们仍然不晓得神经反响形式的寄义:扫描可以探测到哪些态度、意见、激动或神经运动。 They plan next to try the experiment in reverse: to scan incoming students who don’t yet know one another and see whether those with the most congruent neural patterns end up becoming good friends. 接上去,他们计划停止相反的实验:扫描那些互相还不看法的重生,看看那些神经形式最分歧的先生终极能否会成为好冤家。

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