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阅读试题剖析之文本细读题

作者:  泉源: 公布工夫:2016-03-08

要害词: 停止, 可以, 我们, 视角, 叙说, ┊阅读:次┊

从现在新SAT提供的相干标题来看,“视角剖析”类标题考察得未几,次要会在小说中出题,以是在这里把这种题型所触及的知识向同窗们停止引见,协助各人在遇到这种题的时分可以愈加沉着地应对。

在College Board提供的Test Specifications中,关于“Analyzing point of view”这个考点的表明是:The student will determine the point of view or perspective from which a text is related or the influence this point of view or perspective has on content and style。

我们会发明,这个表明通知我们,考题会从两个角度停止调查:1)文章运用了何种视角;2)如许的视角对文章的内容和作风会有何种影响。而在表明中,也道出了point of view的界说:“…from which a text is related”,即故事是从谁的角度、以谁的声响在停止报告。

因而在判别视角时,就会触及到判别:1)文章接纳了第几人称 2)叙说者的身份 3)该视角所形成的结果。

先从视角提及。叙说视角分为三种:第一人称(first person)、第二人称(second person)和第三人称(third person)。

第一人称便是以“I”或“we”作为叙说角度。当一篇小说以“I”作为视角时,我们会晓得“我”是小说中的脚色(通常是配角),可以深化且间接地理解到这个脚色的心田,而如许的视角通常是间接的、富无情感的、客观化的。偶然,“我”也可以作为观看者,搜集关于配角的统统信息,从而出现出故事的全貌,比方《巨大的盖茨比》中的Nick Carraway、《吼叫山庄》中的Mr.Lockwood都因此第一人称作为观看者来叙说故事的。当以“we”来停止叙说时,读者就会感觉到本人是故事中的一局部,被归于了一个集团。

第二人称“you”很少作为长篇小说的叙说视角停止运用,在书信体(epistolary style)中比拟罕见。当运用“你”来停止叙说时,读者会感触叙说者在间接与本人对话,从而发生一种密切感,也会对叙说者的阅历和苦难发生感同身受之感。

第三人称“he”、“she”、“it”、“they”是最常用的一种叙说角度,与第一人称相比,接纳第三人称通常会给人觉得愈加客观、抑制。第三人称依照视角的范畴,又可以分为“第三人称无限视角(third person limited)”和“第三人称全知视角(third person omniscient)”。第三人称无限视角指的是,作者只提醒一个脚色心田运动;而第三人称全知视角则提醒每个脚色的想法和心田运动。

固然运用同种人称,但差别的身份也会形成叙说结果的差别。比方一位老者作为叙说者,和儿童作为叙说者,叙说的方法必定是差别的。老者的语气会愈加沉稳漠然,而儿童则充溢灵活童趣。再如学者的用词会愈加正式、更具学术性,而一个艺术家的用词能够会愈加富有特性、充溢想象力。

上面,我们以新旧SAT的视角剖析类标题为例,带着同窗们看一下这类标题的特性。

第一道题来自2008 May一篇自传:

25. The narrative point of view in the passage is that of

(A) a doctor explaining why she chose medicine as a career

(B) a child announcing an important realization attained while living away from home

(C) a mother describing her daughter's experiences at school

(D) an objective narrator presenting multiple perspectives within a story

(E) an adult reflecting on certain memorable childhood events

我们会发明,题干间接问我们文章因此谁的视角来停止叙说的,而选项的末尾都是差别的身份:大夫、孩子、母亲、客观叙说者、成年人。

我们截取原文的斜体字局部,和一般段落的首句:

This passage is adapted from a novel based on the life of Dr. May Chinn, a medical pioneer in Harlem during the 1920s. Here the protagonist relates several of her childhood experiences.

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The summer I turned five, Mama decided she‘d had enough of the Lower East Side. …

It was my first tune away from home, the first time in my life that I was to spend even a night separated from my mother….

Upon learning this about myself, mirrors became attractive to me for the first time in my life.

可以看到,斜体字中曾经通知了我们文章节选自一位大夫的自传,而这里是配角在叙说童年的阅历。段落节选讲的是“我5岁的谁人炎天”,前面也叙说了一些事先的阅历,因而很容易就可以扫除选项A、C、D,B错在文章视角因此成年人在回想的角度来叙说的,而不是一个孩子在报告,以是选择E。

第二道题来自旧版SAT OG第7套训练题的小说:

7. The passage is narrated from the point of view of

(A) Henry Mulcahy

(B) an observer who does not know Mulcahy initially, but who learns about him during the course of the passage

(C) an observer who has only partial knowledge of Mulcahy

(D) an observer who knows all about Mulcahy and his thoughts

(E) an administrator at Jocelyn College

这道题照旧在问从谁的视角停止叙说,但我们察看选项可以发明,这道题更偏重于调查叙说视角的范畴。

我们异样摘取原文段落的片断:

When Henry Mulcahy,amiddle-aged instructor of literature at Jocelyn College…unfolded the president's letter and became aware of its contents, he gave a sudden sharp cry of impatience and irritation ...

He had guessed long ago that Hoar meant to dismiss him, but he was amazed, really amazed (he repeated the word to himself) that the man should have given himself away by an action as overt as this one....

For the truth was, as Mulcahy had to acknowledge…that in spite of all the evidence he had been given of the president's unremitting hatred, he found himself hurt by the letter...

从原文片断,我们可以看到,配角为Henry Mulcahy,以第三人称叙说,因而可以间接扫除A。原文中我们可以看到Henry Mulcahy的举动:unfolded the president's letter,也可以看到他的心思运动:He had guessed long ago that Hoar meant to dismiss him。而且原文没有其别人的心思运动存在,这时,我们可以扫除B和E,在C和D中停止选择。D契合原文关于Henry Mulcahy的描绘,因而为准确答案。

最初,我们来看一下新OG第一套题中关于视角剖析的调查:

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34. Woolf uses the word “we” throughout the passage mainly to

A) reflect the growing friendliness among a group of people. ?

B) advance the need for candor among a group of people. ?

C) establish a sense of solidarity among a group of people. ?

D) reinforce the need for respect among a group of people.

这里可以看到,题干考察的是运用第一人称“we”所告竣的结果。

我们摘取原文的斜体字和文本片断(Lines 19-24):

This passage is adapted from Virginia Woolf, Three Guineas. ©1938 by Harcourt, Inc. Here, Woolf considers the situation of women in English society.

But now, for the past twenty years or so, it is no longer a sight merely, a photograph, or fresco scrawled upon the walls of time, at which we can look with merely an esthetic appreciation. For there, trapesing along at the tail end of the procession, we go ourselves.

从原文中,我们发明“we”指代的是全体女性,而Woolf号令女性要“we go ourselves”。回到选项,我们会发明A选项的“growing friendliness”,B选项的“need for candor”以及D选项的“need for respect”并没有在原文有特定的表现,而C选项的“solidarity”,勾结,则凸显了Woolf所提出的“we go ourselves”,以是在本文中,运用“we”这一人称,可以让女性们感触本人属于一个集团,要为配合的目的而高兴。

综上,我们在面对“视角剖析”类标题时,要留意审题,看清标题问的是视角确实定,照旧视角的结果,并依据差别的要求来寻觅线索停止剖析。如许,才干回到原文停止信息的精确判别,选出准确的答案。

濮妍

SAT阅读组主干教员

新SAT课本2.0版本训练题编写人

曾为数家企业与学校设计培训方案

到场团体新SAT阅读研发任务

高分案例:SAT 780分

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